Volume 3, Issue 4, December 2018, Page: 36-41
Energy Audit and Efficiency of a Complex Building: A Comprehensive Review
Jamilu Ya’u Muhammad, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
Abdullahi Audu Adamu, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria
Abdulkarim Mika’il Alhaji, Department of Physics, Federal University, Wukari, Nigeria
Yerima Yusif Ali, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Usman Danfodio University, Sokoto, Nigeria
Received: Nov. 22, 2018;       Accepted: Dec. 13, 2018;       Published: Jan. 25, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.es.20180304.11      View  164      Downloads  32
Abstract
An energy audit determines where, when, why and how energy is used in a facility, and to identify opportunities to improve efficiency. Energy audits are a powerful tool for identifying operating and equipment improvements that will save energy, reduce energy costs, and lead to better efficiency. Energy audit is also known as ‘Energy Assessment’. The present study intends to review energy audit and efficiency of a complex building and identified the ways of reducing waste of energy in a complex building. This research provides an overview on energy audit which comprises of energy audit team, types of energy phase and classifications of energy audit, then energy use index. The paper also focuses on past works of energy audit on hospital buildings, academics building and other buildings. Finally, the results reveal that air-conditioners consume more energy followed by office equipment and then lighting. It was also found that energy wastage was as a result of higher energy consuming equipment and its usage during unoccupied hours.
Keywords
Energy Audit, Air-conditioners, Lighting, Energy Use Intensity
To cite this article
Jamilu Ya’u Muhammad, Abdullahi Audu Adamu, Abdulkarim Mika’il Alhaji, Yerima Yusif Ali, Energy Audit and Efficiency of a Complex Building: A Comprehensive Review, Engineering Science. Vol. 3, No. 4, 2018, pp. 36-41. doi: 10.11648/j.es.20180304.11
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
ECN (Energy Commission of Nigeria) (2003). National Energy Policy.
[2]
K. R. Chowdhury, M. Di Felice (2000). Search: a routing protocol for mobile cognitive radio ad hoc networks. Computer Communication Journal, 32(18):1983-1997.
[3]
S. U. Kulkarni and KalpanaPatil (2013). Energy Audit of an Industrial Unit: A Case Study. International Journal of Emerging Science and Engineering, 2:22-26.
[4]
CADDET Energy Efficiency (1997). Centre for the Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies. Accessed from http://www.caddet.ee.org.
[5]
Awwad, A.A and Mohammed A.A (2007). World Energy Road Map-A Perspective; WEC- 2007 Energy Future in an interdependent world.
[6]
David Y. C., Kuang-Hax, C. H and Min-Hsien, G. H (2007). Current Situation of energy conservation in high-energy consuming industries in Taiwan. Energy Policy (35):202-209.
[7]
Shen, B., Price, L., and Lu, H. (2010). Energy Audit Practices in China: National and Local Experiences and Issues. Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL-4159E).
[8]
China General Certification (CGC), (2010). Personal communication with staff of China General Certification, August 24, 2010.
[9]
HU, J. D., Chen and Y. K. Chuah (2003). Energy Cost and Consumption in a large Acute Hospital. International Journal on Architectural Science, volume 5, Number 1, pp: 11-19.
[10]
Deepalakshmi, D. (2008). Energy Management in Hospitals, “Express Health Care, 2008”.
[11]
Da’as, B.A.A (2008). Energy Management Procedures and Audit Results of Electrical Thermal and Solar Application in Hospital Sector in Palestine, An-Najah National University, Faculty of Graduate studies M. Sc. Thesis, 2008, pp:1-147.
[12]
GGHH network, (2012). “Energy Saving and Carbon Reduction Policies at the Taiwan, National Cheng Kung University Hospital”, Global Green and Healthy Hospitals, (GGHH) Network, case studies, pp: 1-4.
[13]
Janos, T.B Howard, P.R. B. Rosolowski R. (2012). Hospital Energy Audit, Georgetown Public Hospital, Guyana, Improving Health facility Infrastructure EPP-1-00-03-00008-00, task order 07 by Association of Energy engineers and spectrum Energy engineers and Spectrum Energy Concepts, Inc.
[14]
Tukur U, (2013). Study of Electrical Energy Utilization in Katsina General Hospital. Unpublished PGDM Project. Bayero University Kano, Nigeria.
[15]
Umar U.A (2013). Study of Electrical Energy Consumption in Gumel General Hospital. Unpublished PGDM.Project.Bayero University Kano, Nigeria.
[16]
TekeA, and Timur O. (2014). Overview of Energy Savings and efficiency Strategies at the Hospitals. World Academy of science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of social, Behavioral, Education al, Economic business and Industrial Engineering Vol. 8, No: 1.
[17]
Nwanya S.C, Sam, C Amobi and Ektchukwu O.V. (2015). Energy Performance Indies for Hospital Building in Nigeria. Department of Mechanical Engineering, faculty of Engineering University of Nigeria, Nsukka, 41010 Enugu state, Nigeria. International Journal of Technology 1: 15-25 ISSN 2086-9614.
[18]
Rohde, T., and Martinez, R., (2015). Equipment and Energy Usage in a Large Teaching Hospital in Norway. Journal of Healthcare Engineering, Volume 6, Number 3.
[19]
Abbas Umar and Enabrekhan J.S (2016). Energy Conservation Pattern of Murtala Muhammad General Hospital Kano. An unpubished M. Eng. Thesis. Bayero University Kano, Nigeria.
[20]
Sani M. (2005). Energy Audit for an Institution: A case study of Kaduna State Polytechnic. An unpublished M.Eng. thesis Bayero University Kano, Nigeria.
[21]
Abubakar, (2012). Study of Electrical Energy Consumption Pattern of Federal College of Education, Katsina, an unpublished M. Eng. thesis, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria.
[22]
Mohammed and Budaiwi, I.M. (2013). Strategies or Reducing Energy Consumption in a Student cafeteria in a Hot-Humid climate: A case study of King Fahad University of Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Sustainable Development, Energy, Water Environmental System.pp: 14-26, http://dx.doi.org/10.1304/j.sdewes.2013.01.002
[23]
Altamash A. Baig and Alan S. Fung (2015). A Case Study in Energy Modelling of an Energy Efficient Building with Gas Driven Absorption Heat Pump System in eQuest. Ryerson University Toronto, Ontario. Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering.
[24]
Oyedepo, S.O, Adekeye, T, Leramo, R.O. Kilanko, O. Babalola, O.P Balogun, A.O. and Akhibi, M.O, (2015). A Study on Energy Demand and Consumption in Convent University, Ota, Nigeria. International Conference in African Development Issues (CU-ICADI) 2015: Renewable Energy Trade.
[25]
Modu B., Bukar A.L., Musa A. and Aliyu A.K (2015). Energy Auditing and Management: A Case Study of Student Hostel, A.B.U Zaria, Nigeria. Journal of Multidisplinary Engineering Science and Technology, Volume 2, Issue 7.
[26]
Galadima U, (2001). Analysis of Electrical Energy Consumption for Effective Utilization in a Government owned Housing Unit in Zamfara State. An unpubished M. Eng. Thesis. Bayero University, Kano.
[27]
Mathews, E.H, Botha C.P, Adrat D.C and Malan A. (2001). HVAC Control Strategies to Enhance Comfort and Minimize Energy Usage. Energy and Building, pp:334-338.
[28]
Rabi’u A. (2005). Effective Energy Utilization in Katsina State Secretariat Building Complex. Unpublished M.Eng. Thesis, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria.
[29]
HarpreetKaur and Kamal deep Kaur, (2012). Energy Conservation: An effective way of energy Utilization” IE Volume 2, Issue 5.
[30]
Enaburekhan J. S. (2013). ‘Introduction to Energy Studies’ A handout for M.Eng. (Energy), Bayero University Kano, Nigeria. (Unpublished).
Browse journals by subject